In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Grantor of Mercy
How an apocalyptic tradition played into the hands of anti-Jewish and anti-Muslim hatemongers
A Jordanian cleric visiting Canada recently misleadingly cited a hadith without context or explanation, which rightly triggered condemnations from the Muslim community as well as numerous headlines around the world. A hadith is an oral report transmitted from the Prophet Muhammad, and can be incredibly complex as one needs to evaluate all the chains of transmission of a particular statement recorded in a hadith in order to arrive at an appropriate conclusion of what the particular hadith is actually talking about. In this case, a single phrase was cited, one describing rocks and trees calling out to Muslims, “There is a Jew behind me, come and kill him.”
This is not the first time that this text has been used to foment anti-Semitic sentiment within the Muslim community. Muslim leaders and scholars must forcefully denounce such rhetoric and clarify Islam’s unequivocal condemnation of all forms of anti-semitism, racism, discrimination, and xenophobia. Of course, Islamophobes pounced on the opportunity to trigger alarm bells and generate a new wave of propaganda accusing Muslims of genocidal ambitions towards Jews, and to claim that Islam is inherently anti-Semitic and a threat to Western civilization
Explanation of the misquoted hadith
A story about a supernatural apocalyptic battle between good and evil
we look up different narrations of the Hadith in question, we find out
that the phrase being quoted is actually part of a larger narrative in
the genre of eschatology (the part of theology dealing with the end
times and the Day of Judgment), describing the return of Jesus and the
apocalyptic battle between Jesus and the Dajjal (Antichrist). In
this battle that will take place between the armies of Jesus and the
Dajjal, several miracles are said to occur including that the Dajjal
will melt when Jesus sees him, and that inanimate rocks and trees will
speak and identify soldiers of the Dajjal (Sunan Ibn Majah 4077).
This is a story about a battle between
two groups of soldiers involved in war, one side of which is clearly
unjust; it does not refer to innocent civilians. And it’s not actually a
battle about one religious group against another! As a matter of fact,
Muslims believe that all righteous Christians, Jews, and Muslims will be
following Jesus after he returns (Qur’an 4:159) united under one creed
of monotheism and belief in all of God’s messengers. Meanwhile,
misguided Christians, Jews, and Muslims will be following the Dajjal.
Indeed, other Hadith demonstrate that many of the Dajjal’s forces will
actually be deviant Muslims (Sunan Ibn Majah 179).
Jews are amongst the good guys in the Muslim apocalypse
The hadith describing the soldiers of
Dajjal who happen to be Jewish are in fact referring to a specific cult
of 70 000 that takes Dajjal to be their messiah and follows him in his
tyrannical actions (Sahih Muslim 2944). Hadith commentary describes that
those who will become Dajjal’s followers will represent only a small
fraction of the global population of Jews (Fayd al-Bari, Anwar Shah
Kashmiri, 4/197). In fact, most Jews will be righteous folk amongst the
forces of good uniting with virtuous Christians and Muslims, embracing
the message of all the Prophets, and fighting the Dajjal. After
all, the Dajjal will be a murderous dictator who claims to be God, an
anathema to all followers of the Abrahamic tradition as well as to all
people of conscience.
do not believe that rocks and trees will be pointing out random innocent
bystanders, but rather soldiers of the Dajjal – combatants who are
themselves involved in killing innocent people. It is about these
specific combatants in the Antichrist army that rocks and trees will
say, “There is one hiding behind me, come and slay him!” The religious
identity of the Dajjal’s soldiers includes evildoers from all
backgrounds (including misguided Muslims). Other variants of the hadith
state that the rocks and trees will simply say, “Here is a rejector of
truth hiding behind me!” (Musnad Ahmad 3546) or “Here is a soldier of
Dajjal!” (al-Buhur al-Zakhirah 1/493) and do not focus on the religious
hadith describes a future battle between warriors and can only occur
after the return of Jesus; in no way can this hadith be interpreted as a
prescription to go out and harm civilians or peaceful members of any
faith community. The Qur’an explicitly condemns violence against
civilians and non-combatants, stating “Whoever kills a soul it is as if
he has slain all humanity,” (5:32) and, “So if they withdraw and do not
fight you, and offer you peace, then God gives you no way against them,”
(4:90). War is only permitted , as in the case of Jesus fighting against the Dajjal’s forces.
The question of Anti-Semitism and the Armageddon
All three Abrahamic faiths (Islam,
Christianity and Judaism) have well-established traditions about a
prophesied Messiah who will engage in a battle against the forces of
evil in the end times, whether it be the return of Christ who will
battle all the nations of the earth, or the coming of the Masiach ben
Yossef who will destroy the Edomites and enemies of Israel. All
three groups have had to explicate these esoteric eschatological
passages in order to steer clear of antagonism towards other
communities. In 2012, A DNC County Chairman resigned after he said, “The
Christians just want us to be there so we can be slaughtered and
converted and bring on the second coming of Jesus Christ.”).
It’s necessary for people of all faiths to not allow their texts about
the end times to be hijacked in a way that validates hateful speech or
actions in the present. All Abrahamic faiths have eschatological
teachings that are esoteric and require careful critical interpretation.
The mainstream leaders of all faith communities have consistently
emphasized tolerance and respect for others.Islam denounces all forms of anti-Semitism and racism
The Prophet Muhammad taught his
companions to respect people of all faith backgrounds and to care for
everyone. He said, “Donate in charity to people of all faiths” (Musannaf
Ibn Abi Shaybah 3/177) When
the Prophet saw the funeral procession of a Jew passing by, he stood up
out of respect. When some companions pointed out that the deceased was
not Muslim, he rebuked them stating, “Is it not a human soul?” (Sahih
Bukhari 1250). The lesson here is to respect all humanity. Some Jews
converted to Islam and yet others, like the Rabbi Mukhayriq, continued
to practice Judaism and still remained on good terms with the Prophet
(Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/518). Even when the Prophet passed away, he had his
armor mortgaged to a Jewish person (Sahih Bukhari 2759), a narration
that shows he maintained good relations with Jews until his death.
God instructs you to deal kindly and justly with anyone who has not fought you for your faith or driven you out of your homes: God loves the just
According to Al-Tabari, one of the
earliest commentators, this verse encourages good relations with “all
the sects, creeds, and religions,” (Tafsir al-Tabari 60:8). These
Qur’anic teachings have inspired Muslims throughout the ages. During
World War II, the Grand Mosque in Paris Jews
fleeing the Nazis and provided them with a safe haven and means of
escape. This is the legacy that Muslims must recall and revive.
addition to respecting other faiths, Islam prohibits harming others and
places great emphasis on Muslims maintaining positive relationships
with those outside the faith.
The Prophet Muhammad issued a stark warning about persecuting others
Whoever harms a non-Muslim at peace with us will never smell the fragrance of paradise, although its fragrance can be found a distance of forty years of travel
On the Day of Judgment, the Prophet himself will argue on behalf of persecuted non-Muslims and the Muslims who persecuted them, “If anyone wrongs a non-Muslim at peace with us, violates his rights, burdens him with more work than he is able to do, or takes something from him without his consent, then I will be his advocate on the Day of Resurrection.” (Sunan Abi Dawud 3052). This stunning indictment should make any Muslim think twice before hurting anyone.
will be releasing a full research paper studying the relationship
between Muslims and Jews during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad and
during Islamic history by the end of April. Stay tuned!
- Fath al-Bari by Ibn Hajar al-’Aqsalani, Sharh Sahih Muslim by al-Nawawi, Umdatul-Qari by Badr al-Deen al-’Ayni
- This narration states that he will emerge from the deviant group known as the Khawarij (Sunan Ibn Majah 179), and according to commentaries on Ibn Majah, he will emerge at the head of a great army (“jaysh al-adheem”) of Khawarij (Shuruh Sunan Ibn Majah, edited by Raed Sabri Ibn Abi Ulfah). Another narration (Sahih Bukhari 1881) states that he will be joined by the inhabitants of Makkah and Madinah who are Munafiqeen – those who outwardly claim to be Muslim but whose insincerity in faith will be evident once they join forces with the Dajjal.
-  Fayd al-Bari explains, “This is only about the Jews whom Jesus is fighting against, namely those in the armies of Dajjal, not all Jews around the world.” In fact, if Dajjal is followed by a cult of seventy thousand wearing green shawls and crowns – as the hadith state – this number amounts to less than 0.5% of the global population, a tiny fraction. As an aside, though not a hadith nor theologically reliable narration of any sort, there is an interesting comment recorded in Kitab al-Fitan by Nu’aym ibn Hammad (d.228H), the teacher of Imam al-Bukhari (d.256H), which states that after al-Mahdi (another Islamic eschatological figure) recovers the Ark of the Covenant, most Jews will join the Muslims except for a few. And in the Rabbinical literature, the staff of Aaron – one of the items in the Ark of the Covenant – will be recovered by the Messiah, as a token of his authority (Midrash Yelamdenu).
- “Appendix II – Mashiach in Jewish Law by Rabbi Dr. J. Immanuel Schochet, from his book “Mashiach – the Messianic Era in Jewish Law” on Chabad.org. Dr. Schochet writes, “Interestingly enough, according to Pirkei deR. Eliezer ch. 28 (in non-censored versions), the Ishmaelites (Arabs) will be the final kingdom to be defeated by Mashiach.”
- Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, and Silsilah al-Saheehah vol 6, p628.
- Kitab al-Amwal, Abu Ubayd al-Qasim ibn Sallam d224H, pp727-728, Dar alShuruq 1989.